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Legal terms

You are currently on the HAL repository (“Repository”), developed by the Center for Direct Scientific Communication (“CCSD”), which is a support and research unit (UAR3668) under the triple supervision of the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), of the National Institute for Research and Digital Science and Technology (Inria) and National Research Institute for Agriculture, Food and Environment (INRAE).

The purpose of the Repository is to allow third parties to deposit and distribute research-level scientific papers, whether published or not, and theses, from French or foreign educational and research organizations, public or private laboratories ( “Third Party Content”).


The publisher of the Repository is the CNRS (except for the Third-Party Content). Head office :

3, rue Michel-Ange
75016 Paris

Phone : +33 1 44 96 40 00

Director of Publication: Antoine Petit (Chairman and CEO, CNRS).

The CNRS is not the publisher of the Third-Party Content hosted by the Repository (see article 6, I, 2 de la Loi n° 2004-575 of Law No. 2004-575 of June 21, 2004 on confidence in the digital economy).


Head office :

3, rue Michel-Ange
75016 Paris

Server hosting

21 Avenue Pierre de Coubertin
69100 Villeurbanne

Long-term preservation

CINES 950, rue de Saint-Priest
34000 Montpellier

To consult the CCSD policy on data protection, you can go to the page Personal data.


Information on cookies on this site can be found on the page Personal data - section Cookies

This website may contain hypertext links to third party existing websites. The CCSD can’t exercise any permanent control over these sites, nor can it assume any responsibility for their access conditions, content, advertising and services offered or the use that may be made of them.

The creation of hypertext links by third parties to pages or documents on the CCSD website is authorised provided that the links do not contravene the interests of the CCSD and that they ensure that the user can identify the origin and author of the document. It should be noted that the creation of such hypertext links for the purposes of commercial promotion of products or services offered by a third party is prohibited.

Limitation of responsibility

The Publisher can’t be held responsible for any errors or omissions in the content of the site.

Reporting illegal content

If you believe that any content is illegal according to the meaning of art. 6-I of Law No. 2004-575 of June 21, 2004 on confidence in the digital economy, you can bring it to the attention of the host via the support email address

Last update: October 11, 2023
Created: October 9, 2023